How Does Technology Impact Politics?
Traditional offline public spheres have been criticized for being less inclusive in practice than in theory.  For example, feminist scholars such as Nancy Fraser have argued that, Technology historically, public voters have not been open or accessible to disadvantaged or marginalized groups. social groups, such as women or people of colour; these groups are thus forced to create their own separate public sphere, which they call a counterpublic or subaltern counterpublic (see Public Domain § Counterpublics, Feminist Criticism and Outreach). 
Some researchers argue that online spaces are more open and thus help increase inclusive political participation of marginalized groups.  In particular, anonymous online spaces allow everyone to talk to each other with the same voice. However, others point out that many contemporary online spaces, such as Facebook, are not anonymous. Avatars and profiles on social media often project a person’s identity offline, which can lead to discriminatory and exclusionary practices online that mirror inequalities offline.  Today, more and more historically marginalized or marginalized groups are also using Internet technology to create new spaces online. For their “cyber anti-public”, for example through the use of hashtags like #Ferguson and #BlackLivesMatter. 
example of social exclusion
Another example of social exclusion occurs when users coordinate their information to find information that reinforces their own views or sites with the most content or that advertise frequently. This allows users to skip sites that typically have fewer ads. Evidence for this was found by Steven M. Schneider, who found that while Internet discussion forums on abortion policy had high levels of engagement, chat connections were dominated by users who provided the most content and generally responded less Less user leadership and control. Adopt or adjust according to the opinions of more cooperative users 
Another factor affecting access to the digital public sphere Technology is the digital divide, which refers to the fact that people from less developed countries have less access to ICT Technology than people from more developed countries. For example, the most developed regions in the world, such as North America and Western Europe, have the highest Internet penetration rates of more than 80%, while less developed countries, such as Africa and South Asia, each have less than 30%.  On the other hand, the low cost and increasing availability of mobile devices such as smartphones in less developed regions is rapidly closing this gap. In just two years, between 2013 and 2015, the number of internet users in developing countries grew by 9%, according to the Pew Research Center.  However, other studies have shown that even in the most developed countries like the United States, a digital divide still exists between the highest and lowest socioeconomic classes  and between different levels of education.  Furthermore, scholars like Mark Warshauer argue that it’s all about technology. What matters is not access, but knowledge of how to use the technology in a meaningful way.
Use boots and socks Technology.
Internet crawlers, also known as web crawlers, reptiles, or simply reptiles, are software applications that perform automated tasks (scripts) on the Internet.  Robots typically perform simple, repetitive tasks. This is impossible only for humans. The biggest use of bots is web scraping, where automated scripts retrieve, parse, and categorize information from web servers at many times the speed of humans. More than half of all webTechnology traffic is generated by bots.  The software can detect and confirm the presence of robots through mass coding. One example is the Bot-A-Meter developed by Indiana University, which evaluates 7 different factors to determine if an app was generated by a bot. 
A sock puppet is an online identity used for fraudulent purposes.  The term originally referred to the false identities adopted by members of the Internet community who impersonate others. term is see