Influences of the Visual Entertainment Media
The Power of the Media Effects Scene
In the early 20th century, emerging mass-media , Entertainment Media technologies such as radio and film were seen as having an almost irresistible force to shape public beliefs, perceptions, and behavior toward their communicators. Effect theory assumes that audiences are passive and homogeneous. This assumption is not based on empirical evidence, but on assumptions about human nature. There are two main interpretations of the concept of media influence. First, mass delivery technology is gaining a large audience, even in the average household. People are amazed at how quickly information travels, clouding public perception of the effectiveness of any media. Second, many governments use propaganda techniques during war as a powerful tool to unite their people. This pitch embodies high-impact communication. Early research on media effects often focused on the power of such propaganda (e.g. Lasswell, 1927 ). Given the technological and social circumstances, early theories of media effects suggested that the media is omnipotent. 
The hypodermic needle model, or the magic bullet theory: sees the audience as the target of a bullet fired by an information needle or media weapon. The public cannot avoid or resist injections or pills. “The effect of the panacea is immediate, even and powerful” 
Limited multimedia effect scenes
The second phase of media effects research, beginning in the 1930s, introduced the importance of empirical research and the complexity of media effects due to the specificity of individuals in audiences.  During the period, the Payne Foundation conducted research in the United States. Focus on the influence of the media on young people. Many other independent studies have focused on the study of the effects of persuasion, or the likelihood and use of planned persuasion in film and other media. Howland et al. (1949) conducted a series of experimental studies to evaluate the effectiveness of using film to train American recruits. The study of democratic electoral movements by Paul Lazarsfeld (1944) and colleagues opened the way for the study of the effects of political movements. [twenty one]
Researchers including Lazarsfeld have found increasing empirical evidence that media influences on individuals and audiences have many intermediate variables, such as demographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, political interests, and different media use behaviors. When these new variables were added to the study, it was difficult to separate media influence from the media’s influence on audience perceptions, attitudes, and behavior. As Berelson (1959) concluded in a widely cited conclusion: “Certain types of communication about certain types of issues attract the attention of certain types of people in certain types of Certain types of effects.” The concept of omnipotent media is undercut by failing to demonstrate the media’s lack of influence. Instead, it is believed that pre-existing social relationships and cultural background structures primarily shape or change people’s views, attitudes, and behaviors, and that the media merely shapes them. This complexity has less impact on media effects studies. 
Two-step communication flow: Analyzing media indirect influence, showing that people are influenced by media through the interaction of opinion leaders. Voters are more likely to pay attention to media messages and pass them on to others in their social networks.
Clapper’s Theory of Selective Exposure: In his book The Influence of Mass Communication, Joseph T. Clapper states that the audience is not the passive target of any communication material. Instead, listeners selectively choose content that conforms to pre-set beliefs.
Noam Chomsky enumerates five filters through which mass media operate:
Ownership: At the end of the day, media companies are big corporations trying to make a profit, so most of their stories will make them the most money. [twenty four]
Advertising: Since mass media costs more than q